Macular Degeneration

Macular degeneration is the deterioration of the macula. The macula is a small central area in the retina which allows us to see small fine objects clearly.

AMD affects adults above the age of 55 and the one of the leading cause of irreversible blindness in the world. The causes of AMD range from genetic factors to environmental factors like increasing age and smoking.

Types of AMD

Early (Dry) AMD


Yellow deposits called drusens are situated at the centre of the eye and can causes significant visual impairment depending on location.

  • Blurring of vision
  • Straight lines looking wavy or distorted
  • Dark spot in the centre of your vision
Late (Wet) AMD

It is classified as the development of abnormal new blood vessels underneath the retina; these vessels leak blood or fluid, affecting the central vision.

Myopic Macular Degeneration

It is characterized by the progressive increase in the eyeball length with the thinning and degeneration of the macula.

The risk of myopic macular degeneration is having more than 600 degrees of short-sightedness and axial length of more than 26 mm. Due to the degenerative changes of the macula, one might have risks of retinal tears and detachment which can lead to rapid loss of vision, cataracts, increased risk of open angle glaucoma.


  • Blurring of vision
  • Dark spot in the centre of your vision
  • Distortion in one’s vision

For Dry AMD

  • Oral vitamins (C and E) and antioxidants (Zinc, Copper)
  • Cessation of smoking
  • Healthy lifestyle with balanced diet and regular exercise
  • Regular Amsler grid monitoring
  • For Wet AMD/ Myopic macular degeneration

  • Intravitreal anti VEGF injections (Lucentis/ Avastin)
  • Retinal Laser Photocoagulation or Photodynamic Therapy (PDT)